The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covers an area of ​​about 2,250,000 square kilometers in the south-west of Asia, between the widths of 46 22 16 and 00 14 32 North, and between the longitudes of 30-29 34 and 55 00 40 east, bordered to the east by the Arabian Gulf, The United Arab Emirates, the State of Qatar, the Kingdom of Bahrain and the north: the State of Kuwait, the Republic of Iraq, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the Red Sea and the South: the Republic of Yemen and the Sultanate of Oman. Saudi Arabia accounts for about two-thirds of the Arabian Peninsula, an important geographically important region of its existence as a land and sea link between three blocks of land: the continents of the ancient world Asia, Africa and Europe. It is part of the continent of Asia, It is also close to the continent of Europe, separated by the Mediterranean Sea and the surrounding lands.

Saudi Arabia is characterized by diverse terrain due to its vast area, successive geological developments and major climate changes. The Kingdom’s highlands, plateaus, plains, valleys and sand dunes are among the most important features of the kingdom:
Coastal Plains:
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has two coastal plain, one in its west, along the Red Sea to the east, the other in the east along the Arabian Gulf to the west. The area covered by these two coasts is about 15,765 square kilometers, or 0.8% of the Kingdom.
1- The coastal plain of the Red Sea:
The coastal plain of the Red Sea, known as the Tihama plain, stretches along the Red Sea from north to south, from the Gulf of Aqaba and the border with the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the north, up to the border with the Republic of Yemen to the south. It is about 2,400 km long. Its wideness varies from place to place. It disappears when the mountainous highlands reach the sea, as is the case at the north of the face at the center of Zubaydah, almost south of the northern latitude 27, and may sometimes extend to 45 to 50 km wide, as is the case in Jazan.
The rock of this plain dates back to the era of modern life (Sinozo). It consists of continental and marine sediments and sediments, and some volcanic eruptions. It is spread over the surface of the saline sprigs, small sand dunes, and is cut by the narrow valleys, which descend from the western highlands towards the Red Sea. The coastline is generally low-lying but contains many headers, bays, or fringes and coral reefs. In addition to the coast, there are many islands of limited size, the most important being the Farsan Islands.
2- The coastal plain of the Arabian Gulf:
The coastal plain of the Arabian Gulf in Saudi Arabia extends from its border with the State of Kuwait to the north, north of Ras Al Khafji, to its border with Qatar at the bottom of Doha. The plain then stretches back a short distance after the Qatar Peninsula and around Doha Duheen, south of Khor Al-Adid. The length of this plain with its axis more than 1000 km. It is mostly confined between the Saman Plateau in the west and the Arabian Gulf in the east. It varies from one place to another, ranging from 60 kilometers in the north of Khafji, to 130 kilometers west of Dammam.
Like the western coastal plain, the rocks of this plain return to the modern era of the Sineozo. It consists of sea sediments and continental sediments. It is generally characterized by its simplicity and low elevation from sea level, rising slowly to the west at a rate of one meter per kilometer. Therefore, it is spread by the extensive salt paddies, especially near the waters of the Gulf, which consists of a mixture of salts, sand, mud and sand. Its sand-filled surface also covers the fixed sandstone to the north of Jubail, and to the south lies the white sand, which is composed of sand and sand dunes that extend southward until it connects south of Al-Hofuf Oasis with the sand of Al-Jafura. The places that are not covered by sand and dander are composed of barren limestone rocks dating back to the Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene times of the third geological time. The coast line is generally overburdened by the shallow water of the Gulf, so there are many small heads and bays and coral reefs. Small islands, most of which may be flooded by water, are also scattered nearby.ب- Western Highlands:
One of the most important contrivances in Saudi Arabia is the western mountainous highlands that extend along the Red Sea, from the border with the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the north and the border with the Arab Republic of Yemen to the south, at a length of 1550 km. Its width ranges from a few kilometers to 140 kilometers. They are generally higher in the south and north than in the center. It has a number of high mountain peaks with a height of 2000 meters above sea level. The summit of Mount Souda in the west of Abha is the highest peak with a height of 3015 meters above sea level.
The Western Highlands are parallel mountain chains formed as a result of the strong refractive earth movements that occurred during the third geological time, which led to the separation of the Arabian plate from the African shield. Therefore, these elevations descend vertically and suddenly towards the Red Sea and gradually to the inside. The breakaway movements have formed longitudinal valleys that permeate these chains from north to south or vice versa. The occasional valleys, some of which have also formed fractures, extend from these heights to the coastal plain adjacent to the Red Sea or to inland areas where water is often lost in sandy seas.
The rocks of these highlands, some of which date back to the pre-Cambrian period, consist of incandescent rocks such as granite, Kalnis and Shast, which are characterized by their hardness and resistance to erosion. These are covered by volcanic eruptions that date back to the end of the third geological time and the fourth geological time, And some large basins where the sedimentary rocks formed later.
The western highlands are divided vertically from south to north as follows:

1 – Mountains of Sarawat: It represents the southern part of these highlands and extends from the Kingdom’s borders with the Republic of Yemen to the south, to the north of Taif, the highest between these sections, ranging between 800 to 3000 meters above sea level.
2 – Hejaz Mountains: It represents the middle section of these highlands, and extends from the north of Mecca to the width of 28 north, which is lower and more than the mountains of Sarawat and the mountains of Medina and is dominated by volcanoes and volcanic cones, the average height of 1200 meters above sea level.
3. Madin Mountains: They represent the northern part of these highlands and extend north of latitude 28 north, and contain some complex mountain ranges and high mountain peaks, some of which rise more than 2,000 and 2500 meters above sea level.
The southern section of the Western Highlands (Sarawat) in particular is broadly divided from west to east to three main domains:
1- The range of the coastal hills: Locally defined in some parts of the landscape and in other parts of the area. These heights start from the plain in the form of low hills, gradually increasing their height as they progress eastward to meet the high elevations. Some parts are “sweet”. In spite of the relative decline of this range, however, it includes high isolated mountains that may rise in some areas – the height of high elevations to the east of them.
2 – Scope of the issuance: (collection chest), the western slopes of the high highs and which descend steeply to the west and with some overlap to add to this range high isolated mountains in the previous range. The release extends between the water splitting line and the range of the coastal hills. It starts with an infinite number of occasional wadis that pour water westward towards the Red Sea and are in this range narrow and with high sharp sides.
3. High altitude range: It starts from the water-splitting line, where the valleys are heading west towards Tihama or east towards the inland coastal areas where this range ends in the western parts of these plains. The range ranges from 1800 to 2,400 meters above sea level and some peaks may exceed 3000 meters above sea level.

C – Alhrat:
The main hulls in the Kingdom cover about 69870 square kilometers, or about 3.4% of its area. They occupy large areas east of the western highlands and between the western plateaus, around a longitude of approximately 40 degrees east from north to south. It is a flood of basalt and volcanic eruptions dating back to the late third geological time and the fourth geological time, ranging between 1100 – 1300 m above sea level.
The most important of which are from the North to the Free South, Al Raha, Awreed, Free Mount Reish, Lanir, Khaybar, Hatim, Harameh, Al-Harath, Keshab, Hanan, Al-Nasaf, and Baqum. It also stretches freely and is the only one not located close to the longitude 40 east to the east of Mount Salma in the Hail region.
There are also a limited amount of space in the coastal plain of the Red Sea, the most important of which are the ponds and the sands south of Qunfudah. And free to the east of the city of Amalj.
D – Highlands:
The hills cover more than half of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where the western plateaus extend eastward from the western highlands. The plateau of Najd occupies large areas of the center of the Kingdom, while the hills of Hammad and the chamber extend to the far north and the plateau extends in the east. Overall, these plateaus gradually descend from the west to the east or the north, where the plains and isolated rock peaks emerge. These hills intersect hundreds of dry valleys that extend with the general trend of the decline, which formed in previous periods, and these plateaus as follows:

1- Western Highlands:
The western plateaus extend eastward from the western highlands, and are part of the Arabian Shield with ancient fire and antiquity rocks dating back to the pre-Cambrian era. It consists of the following plateaus:
1-1 Hsami Plateau: The Hsami Plateau extends in the north west of the Kingdom, from the borders of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the north, to the free south, and from the Tabuk lowlands eastward to the mountains of Midian in the west. They generally descend east and north. Its height ranges from 800 to 1000 m above sea level.

1-2 Hijaz Plateau: The Hejaz Plateau is located to the southeast of the Hemmi Plateau. It stretches from the Tbeik Mountains to the north, to the Khyber freeway to the south and from the great foothills east to the western highlands. They generally descend towards the Tabuk basin in the center and north and east. They range from 900 to 1100 meters above sea level.
1-3 Asir Plateau: The Asir Plateau stretches from the Naif and Baqum mountains north to the Najran Plateau and the Sarawat Mountains to the south, and from the plateau of Najd in the east to the Sarawat Mountains to the west. It generally descends to the north and east, and ranges from 1200 to 1600 meters above sea level.

1-4 Najran Plateau: The plateau of Najran extends from Najd and Aseer to the north of Najran valley to the south, and from the sands of the Empty Quarter to the east to the Sarawat heights in the west. They generally descend eastward. Its height ranges from 1100 to 1500 m above sea level.

2 – Plateau Najd: Plateau Najd, the largest plateau Kingdom. It occupies large areas in the middle of it, from the great waste north to the empty quarter to the south, and from the east in the east to the western plateaus. It is divided into two parts in terms of geological structure, the first west, known as the high Najd, and extends from the mountains of Shamar north to the south of the valley of Dawsir in the south, and the secret of the secret and the east to the west and the western plateaus and hills. It is part of the Arabian Shield, which is an ancient arctic rock, which dates back to the pre-Cambrian era. It is characterized by its hardness and resistance to erosion. It stands out in the form of plateaus and rocky peaks, such as the Nair Mountains, Dahlan Mountains and Al-Alam Mountains. They generally descend to the south and east. Its height ranges between 800 – 1200 m above sea level.
The surface of this section of the Plateau is cut off by a large number of valleys and waterways that extend along the general trend of the slope, such as the valleys of Ramah, Bisha, Triangle, Ring, and others.
The second section, the eastern one, is known as the Lower Najd, which runs from the great north to the empty quarter to the south, and from Nafdi al-Dahhi west to Dahna in the east. Lower Nejd descends generally towards the east. Its height ranges between 600 – 1100 m above sea level. It is part of the Arabian shelf, so it consists of sedimentary rocks that follow successive layers from west to east, from the Cambrian to the Eocene. In this section, the rocky rims formed by the difference in the hardness of its rocks, which extend in the form of arches from north to south, are the most important of which is the edge of Tuwaiq, which extends to approximately 1200 km, from the north of the city of Zulfi north to the sands of the empty quarter to the south. The plateau contains a large number of valleys and waterways that extend along the general direction of the slope, such as the valleys of Rumah, Dawasir, Najran, Hanifa, Lasli, Nisah and others.

3 – Hamada and the chamber:

Al Hammad and Al-Khaldah are located in the far north of the Kingdom, between the border with the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to the north and the Great Nefoud to the south, and the border with the Republic of Iraq in the east and Hurra Al Hurra and Wadi Al Sarhan in the west. The height of the Hammad plateau ranges from 650 to 900 m above sea level and the Chamber Plateau ranges from 400 to 560 m above sea level. The surface of these two hills intersects the valleys and the waterways, which are generally oriented towards the northeast.

4 – the plateau:
The plateau extends from the border with the State of Kuwait and the Iraqi Republic in the north to the desert of the Empty Quarter in the south and the length of about 1000 km, and from the coastal plain of the Arabian Gulf east to the sands of Dahana in the west. Its width ranges from about 80 to 250 kilometers. It descends gradually from west to east, ranging from 25 meters at its eastern edge to 400 meters at its western edge. Some of its parts take on different names such as Aldabdaba, steel, Ribaida, Shadqam and Yabreen.
In the plateau, there are some gravel plains, such as the Dabdaba Plain, which covers gravel and gravel, and the surface of the plateau, particularly in the central and northern parts of the plateau, with a depth of more than 50 meters. These gaps are produced by the melting of limestone rocks. As well as al-Khubari, Al-Rawdat and others, as the surface of the plateau intersects many reefs and valleys, the most important of which are Al-Batin, Al-Asrar, Wadi Al-water and Al-Sahba.
E. Sand Formations:
The sandy formations cover about 36.9% of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia covering about 746567 square kilometers. It is located in the form of sand dunes with an area of ​​about 688852 square kilometers, sand dunes interspersed with some flat plains and an area of ​​about 36478 square kilometers, sand mattresses with a shop with an area of ​​about 11779 square kilometers and sandy mattresses with an area of ​​about 9458 square kilometers. The sandy formations, especially the sand dunes, including the western highlands, are among the most prominent of these phenomena. These formations consist of disintegrated sand formed by the surface erosion of water and air which led to their accumulation in pelvic areas that fall from the general level of the earth’s surface or in protected areas parallel to the rocky edges where the wind speeds down and loads from the sand. Most of the sand formations are concentrated in the Kingdom due to the nature of their composition on the Arab shelf and in the coastal plain of the Red Sea, in addition to very limited areas on the Arabian Shield. Among the most prominent sand formations in the Kingdom are the following:
1 Main Sand Formations:

1 1 The great waste:

It is located in the northern part of the Kingdom. The basin is occupied by the heights of Haddat al-Hammad and the chamber north, Najd Plateau, Jibli Agha and Salma to the south, the eastern plateau plateau and the Hejaz plateau in the west. It covers approximately 65504 square kilometers, or about 3.2% of the Kingdom’s area. It represents the second largest area of ​​the sand formation in the Kingdom after the Empty Quarter. It is related to the great Nefood in the east of Dahna, and in the south-east we find the glory. Large spills include various forms of sand dunes, but longitudinal, semicircular and astral dunes are the most common. Some dunes, especially stellar ones, may reach 200 meters above the level of the adjacent flatlands.
12 The fat:
It extends over a distance of about 1200 km, from the great waste in the north to the empty quarter in the south. With an area of ​​about 35466 square kilometers, or about 1.8% of the Kingdom. The dolphins consist of chains of parallel longitudinal sand dunes or crannies extending from the north-west to the south-east, north of latitude 24, and from the northeast to the south-west to the south. These veins are separated by flat surfaces, one of which is called an air or an atmosphere. The width and height of these dunes varies from neighboring lands from one place to another. The width of the valleys and flatlands between them ranges from 20 to 80 kilometers, and may reach some 170 meters above the level of flat land adjacent to them. The dolphins have a variety of sand dunes, but longitudinal dunes are the most common.
1-3 Empty Quarter:
The Empty Quarter occupies a large area in southeastern Saudi Arabia, between Najd and Saman, the sands of Dahana and Jafura in the north, borders with the Sultanate of Oman and the Arab Republic of Yemen to the south, borders with the Sultanate of Oman and the United Arab Emirates in the east and the plateau of Najran in the west. It covers approximately 486,245 square kilometers of the Kingdom’s land, or about 24% of its area. It has a length of 1200 kilometers between latitudes 30 to 44 and 30 56 degrees east and its width reaches 640 kilometers between the widths of 15 and 2300 north.
The surface of the Empty Quarter covers several forms of sand dunes, some of which are fixed and the other are movable, some are craggy and others are kebab or kebab.

1_4 Jade and White Jobs:

The total area of ​​Al-Jafoora and Al-Jafira is about 53637 square kilometers, ie about 2.7% of the Kingdom’s area. It extends to the east of the Saman plateau from Al-Aqeer in the north to the outskirts of the northern Khali quarter near Yibreen in the south. This tongue is narrowed in the north so that it does not exceed 30 km wide, but it expands to the south to connect with the sand of the Empty Quarter, which reaches about 100 km. The sands of Singapore are made up of different forms, such as sandalwood, cauliflower and sand mattresses, as well as between the dunes here and there.
Nafud al-Bayda extends from the north-west of Jubail to al-Aqeer, where it is connected to the sands of Jafra. The white name is referred to as the white sand, which is similar to the sands in terms of the dominant shapes and size.
2 Small Sand Formations:
In addition to the major sand formations mentioned above, there are numerous sand dunes scattered along the rocky valleys in the center of the Kingdom or around the banks of the Great Waves. And on the coastal plains and the combined area of ​​about 105715 km2, or about 5.2% of the Kingdom. The most important of these small sand formations are the dizzying, swirling, the bark, the classics, the dahy and the secret, the ancient and the veins of the spring.

the climate :
Large parts of Saudi Arabia lie within the vast tropical desert belt stretching from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the Thar Desert in eastern India. The orbit of cancer passes almost in the middle of its territory. The drought in most parts of the Kingdom has helped the vast area free of water bodies such as rivers and lakes. The Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea are two narrow seas with limited impact on their neighboring coasts, in addition to the western highland and sandy deserts that prevent climate effects from penetrating into the country.
Most of the interior of the Kingdom is classified as climatic in the dry climate except for the Empty Quarter and limited areas in the far north-west, which are classified as very dry areas. The mountainous highlands in the south-west are semi-dry.
The Kingdom’s climate differs from region to region depending on its location and its different terrain. It is generally characterized by continental climate and extreme temperature extremes. The daily and seasonal temperature varies widely. The temperature varies from place to place depending on the degree of width, terrain and distance from the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. In total, temperatures rise from north to south, due to the impact of the degree of supply and the relative decline in the overall rise and the sovereignty of the sand dunes. Temperatures are also falling on mountainous highlands in the west of the kingdom as a result of the rise. Temperatures are relatively high along the southwestern coast of the Kingdom, due to its low surface area and its proximity to the Red Sea, whose water temperature is gradually rising southward, in addition to the tropical region and sometimes the south-western monsoon.
Rainfall in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with the exception of its southwestern region, is characterized by its annual average of 30.9 mm in the face and 144.2 mm in Qassim. It ranges from 112.4 mm in Jizan and 207.9 mm in Khamis Mushait. In 442.3 mm and 368.5 mm in Belgreshe. Most of the country’s rainforests are characterized by rain and rain. Most of the rain falls in the winter, early spring and late fall. The rainy month varies from place to place because The rainfall falls on the southwest of the Kingdom in almost all seasons of the year. It varies in size from one season to another and from one place to another depending on the height, extension and direction of the mountains for the wind. Rising rain-fed aerial currents. Rainfall generally decreases in the direction of the east, due to decreasing altitude, distance from the sea and the impact of moisture-laden winds.


About 2250 plant species were registered in Saudi Arabia, of which 40 were endemic, 20% of which were rare. In terms of spatial distribution, plant life in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia contains many plant species that adapt in their distribution to a large extent with the topography and soils prevailing in the Kingdom, which is reflected in a large extent on the abundance of moisture and food. Widespread species.

The distribution of some plant species in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is restricted to a limited and accurate population where appropriate conditions are necessary for the growth of these plants. For example, annual plants such as spp. Plantago, Rosemary, Rumex vesicarius, Anisosciadium lanatum, Picris babylonica, Schismus barbatus, Erodium laciniatum, Asphodelus tenuifolius, and Medicago laciniata have a short history of their roots and lifecycle. They are therefore concentrated in lands with relatively solid surface and those with sufficient water . The presence of these plants is less common in rocky areas and sand dunes characterized by continuous movement that do not retain sufficient moisture. Therefore, the presence of these plant species is restricted to the citizens that reach the moisture and minerals that are washed from the adjacent high areas.

Saline plants such as Pyramid Zygophyllum spp. The Helopeplis perfoliata, the Saueda fruticosa and the Seidlitzia rosmarinus are found in the ponds and depressions where the highland waters are concentrated and salts are concentrated after evaporation. Where the soil is characterized by a high concentration of dissolved salts. It is noted in these places that there are no annual plants and most other permanent plants. When salinity is too high, vegetation is completely non-existent.

Acacia spp trees. Which includes 14 species in the Kingdom, are concentrated in environments suitable for their growth where adequate heat and humidity are available most of the year. In the humid wetlands of Assir, wet humid areas such as Tihama, and the valleys, plains, and wadis, where the waters of the valleys run down and the water courses in the center and east of the Kingdom end.

Juniperus forest is concentrated on the high elevations of the Sarawat Mountains, which are characterized by their coldness and high humidity. Avicennia marina grows in the small bays protected along the eastern coast of the Red Sea and the western coast of the Arabian Gulf. Hyphaene thebaica is located close to the Red Sea coast, especially in the northern and southern parts, the Tihama plain and the wadis that descend from the western highlands to the west where humidity and warmth are available. Some plant species in Saudi Arabia, such as salicornicum Haloxylon, Panicum turgidum and Rhazya stricta, are widespread and have a wide environmental range, so these plant species can be found in several habitats and microorganisms. Some other plant species are widespread in their growth environments. For example, calligonum comosum, Artemisia monosperma and Stipagrostis drarii are common in all sandy areas of the Kingdom, especially when sand is fixed or semi-permanent.

Wild animal life:

Saudi Arabia has several species of wild animals whose ability to adapt to live in such desert environments is estimated to be around 79 species, of which five are extinct. Marine mammals number about 14 species, 432 species, 125 of which are endemic, while the number of birds is about two million birds. The number of reptiles is about 60 species, 34 of which are 9, 9 turtles and 7 amphibians. Invertebrates are the most common species in the Kingdom, with an estimated 3,700 species, about 570 of which are registered as endemic species or species. The number of fish was eight species of those living in fresh water, including five endemic marine fish and the number of about 1280 species. And the number of wild animals in the Kingdom, especially the large ones such as: Arabian Oryx and Arab and Arab Nimr, and the mountain, and Ghazal al-Afri, Ghazal al-Reem and Gazelle Eddy, and many types of carnivores such as hyenas, wolves, wild cats, foxes, and turtles and sea turtles, and many species of birds prey like the buttocks Eagles, falcons and owls since the fifties of the fourteenth century AH due to overfishing, but the establishment of protected areas in several places of the Kingdom has contributed to the proliferation of some endangered animals, especially the oysters, deer and the ears and ostriches and others.


Oil and Mineral Wealth:
Saudi Arabia is one of the world’s largest producers of oil, with an average daily production of 8- 9.4 million barrels per day (2006). It also ranks first among the world countries in terms of reserves. Natural gas, which accompanies oil fields, is abundant in the Kingdom. In addition to oil and natural gas, the Kingdom has a rich mineral wealth. About 5,000 mineral sites have been discovered, of which 1,273 are precious metal sites, 1,172 are mineral deposits and 2502 are non-metallic minerals.

The population of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia according to the preliminary results of the general census of population and housing, which was implemented at midnight on Tuesday morning the first day of the thirteenth of the month of Jumada I 1431 H corresponding to twenty-seventh of April 2010 27136977 people The number of Saudi citizens eighteen million seven thousand Five hundred and seventy-six representing 68.94% of the total population. The number of males among the Saudi citizens was 9527,173 individuals, or 50.93% of the total number of citizens. The number of females was 9,180,403, or 49.07% of the total number of citizens. The number of non-citizens residing in Saudi Arabia on census day was 8,429,401, representing 31.6% of the total population. The number of non-citizens males was 5932974, representing 70.38% of the total number of residents. The number of females was 249,647, or 29.62% of the total number of residents. The number of housing units in the Kingdom on the census day was 4,643,151.

The population is divided according to administrative regions as follows:

Administrative Region












AlMadina al Monawara








Eastern Region
















Northern borders

























تطورت الزراعة بشكل ملحوظ في السنوات الأخيرة، وهي ذات طبيعة مزدوجة. هناك من جهة ، البدو أصحاب الإنتاجية والرأسمالية الضئيلة جدا، ومن جهة أخرى الإنشاءات والتجهيزات الحديثة التي استلزمت استثمارات طائلة.
واهم الإنتاج الزراعي:
حبوب 4،75 مليون طن، ( أهمها القمح: 4 ملايين طن، يصدّر قسم كبير منها إلى دول العالم ويعطى قسم إلى الدول العربية)، بلح 548،000 طن، طماطم 390،000 طن، بطيخ 461،000 طن، شمام 320،000 طن، عنب 100،000 طن، بصل، بطاطس، شعير، حمضيات، تين، وذرة بيضاء, بذور سمسم.
ماشية: أبقار 216،000 رأس، جمال 419،000 رأس، أغنام 8،1 مليون رأس، معز 3،4 مليون رأس. صيد الأسماك 50،000 طن (لؤلؤ).
ترتبط الصناعة في المملكة العربية السعودية بالنفط والغاز الطبيعي: تكرير وبترو كيمياء. وأهم المنتجات الصناعية: الاسمنت القطران، قضبان الفولاذ، الاثيلين، العلف، جليكول الاثيلين، الايتانول الصناعي، ديكلورور الاثيلين، الستيارين، الصودا الكاوية، الازوت, حمض السيتريك، الاوكسجين، الميلامين، وهناك أيضا تحلية مياه البحر وصناعة المواد الغذائية. يتناول نزع الملح من مياه البحر حوالي 100 مليون متر مربع من الماء في السنة. وليست هذه الكمية بشيء يذكر أمام نحو 9500 مليون متر مكعب التي تؤمنها سنويا المياه الجوفية والتي تستهلكها الزراعة. وفي موازاة ذلك تشهد اليوم المملكة نموا كبيرا في مجال الصناعات الزراعية- الغذائية وصناعة المواد الاستهلاكية التي تقوم على رؤوس الأموال الخاصة.
معلومة موجزة:
المساحة: 2,250.000 كيلو متر مربع.
عدد السكان : 22.673.538 نسمة.
الكثافة السكانية : 92،9 نسمة بالكيلومتر المربع.
العاصمة: (4.260.000) نسمة في عام (1425هـ).
أهم المدن: جدة (2.942.337) مليون نسمة (1421هـ)، مكة المكرمة 1.3مليون (1425 هـ).
اللغة : العربية (رسمية)
العملة : الريال السعودي
اليوم الوطني للمملكة:
تحتفل المملكة العربية السعودية بيومها الوطني في اليوم الأول من الميزان الموافق 23 سبتمبر (أيلول) من كل عام وذلك تخليداً لذكرى توحيد المملكة وتأسيسها على يدي جلالة الملك عبد العزيز بن عبد الرحمن آل سعود رحمه الله الذي أعلن قيام المملكة العربية السعودية عام 1351 هـ (1932م
علم المملكة:
علم المملكة العربية السعودية مستطيل الشكل عرضه يساوي ثلثي طوله، أرضيته خضراء وتتوسطه الشهادة (لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله) بخط الثلث وتحتها سيف عربي تتجه قبضته نحو سارية العلم مرسومة باللون الأبيض، ولا يجوز تنكيسه أو ملامسة الأرض أو الماء وذلك احتراماً للشهادة المكتوبة عليه
كلمات النشيد الوطني :
سارعي للمجد والعلياء *** مجدي لخالق السماء
وارفعي الخفاق اخضر *** يحمل النور المسطر
رددي الله اكبر.. يا موطني
موطني قد عشت فخر المسلمين .
عاش المليك للعلم والوطن.
الاستماع إلى النشيد الوطني
شعار المملكة:
يتألف شعار المملكة العربية السعودية من سيفين عربيين منحنيين متقاطعين تعلوها نخلة، ويرمز السيفان للقوة والمنعة والتضحية أما النخلة فترمز للحيوية والنماء والرخاء
عملة المملكة:
الوحدة الأساسية لعملة المملكة هي الريال السعودي وهو مغطى بالذهب وقابل للتحويل إلى العملات الأجنبية ويساوي 100 هللة وفئات العملة هي:
الورقية: الريال، الخمسة ريالات، العشرة ريالات، العشرون ريالا الخمسون ريالاً، المائة ريال، والمائتان ريال والخمسمائة ريال.
المعدنية: الريال، الخمسون هللة، الخمس وعشرون هللة، العشر هللات، والخمس هللات
ويعادل الدولار الأمريكي 3.75 ريال (ثلاثة ريالات وخمس وسبعون هللة
المقاييس والموازين:
تعتمد المملكة في القياس النظام المتري، وفي الوزن الكيلو غرام.
تعتمد المملكة العربية السعودية في تاريخها رسمياً على التقويم الهجري المستند على هجرة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من مكة المكرمة إلى المدينة المنورة. والسنة الهجرية القمرية 354 يوماً مقسمة إلى اثني عشر شهراً قمرياً
العطلات الرسمية:
العطلات الرسمية في المملكة كالآتي
عطلة نهاية الأسبوع: الخميس والجمعة
عطلة عيد الفطر: تبدأ من الخامس والعشرين من شهر رمضان إلى الخامس من شهر شوال ومدتها من عشرة أيام وحتى أسبوعين حسب توافقها مع عطلة نهاية الأسبوع
عطلة عيد الأضحى: تبدأ من الخامس من شهر ذي الحجة إلى الخامس عشر منه
وتعطل الدوائر والمؤسسات الحكومية أثناء هذه الإجازات
الفروع العسكريّة: القوّة البرّيّة ( جيش ), البحريّة, القوّات الجوّيّة, قوّة الدّفاع الجوّيّ, الحرس الوطنيّ, قوّات وزارة الدّاخليّة ( قوّات الدّفاع المدنيّ ) –

* أهم مدن المملكة
مكة المكرمة
تقع مدينة مكة المكرمة على دائرة عرض 21 درجة و27 دقيقة وخط طول 39 درجة و49 دقيقة، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة مكة المكرمة ويوجد بها الكعبة المشرفة، والمسجد الحرام، قبلة المسلمين، مقام إبراهيم عليه السلام، المشاعر المقدسة (منى، عرفات، المزدلفة) جامعة أم القرى، ومقر منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (1294168) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

المدينة المنورة
تقع المدينة المنورة في الشمال الغربي للمملكة على دائرة عرض 24 درجة و28 دقيقة شمالاً وخط طول 36 درجة و39 دقيقة شرقاً، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة المدينة المنورة وبها المسجد النبوي الشريف، قبر الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم، الجامعة الإسلامية، ومجمع الملك فهد لطباعة المصحف . وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (918889) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة الرياض في وسط شبه الجزيرة العربية تقريباً، على دائرة عرض 24 درجة و42 دقيقة وخط طول 46درجة و42 دقيقة، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة الرياض، وهي عاصمة المملكة العربية السعودية، بها جميع الوزارات والسفارات والقنصليات الأجنبية، قصر اليمامة، مجلس الشورى، قصر المؤتمرات، مطار الملك خالد الدولي، ستاد الملك فهد الدولي، مجمع التليفزيون ، الحي الدبلوماسي، جامعة الملك سعود، جامعة الإمام محمد بن سعود الإسلامية، منطقة قصر الحكم، كلية الملك فهد الأمنية، كلية الملك عبدالعزيز الحربية، كلية الملك فيصل الجوية، المستشفى التخصصي، مستشفى الملك خالد الجامعي، مستشفى الملك خالد للعيون، ومستشفى الملك فهد للحرس الوطني. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (4087152) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة جدة على السهل الساحلي الشرقي للبحر الأحمر، الذي يمثل امتداداً طبيعياً للسهل الساحلي المعروف بتهامة بين دائرتي عرض 25 ـ 21 ، 45ـ 21 شمالاً وخطي طول 5 ـ 29، 20 ـ 39 شرقاً.
وهي ميناء بحري رئيس، لذا فقد كان دورها الأساس والتاريخي كونها ميناء ومدخلاً إلى الأراضي المقدسة، ونقطة مرور للحركة التجارية، الأمر الذي جعلها في الوقت الحاضر أهم مركز للاستيراد والتوزيع في المملكة وبالتالي فهي تسيطر على معظم النشاط الاقتصادي فيها لوجود الميناء البحري والجوي. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (2801481) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة أبها في منطقة عسير على دائرة عرض 18 درجة و14 دقيقة، وخط طول 24 درجة، و30 دقيقة وهي مقر إمارة منطقة عسير، وتضم أهم مصايف المملكة، وتعد من مناطق الجذب السياحي، شهدت تطوراً كبيراً في هذا المجال، وبها مطار أبها المتصل مع باقي مطارات المملكة، متنزه عسير الوطني، السودة، دلغان، القرعاء، الهضبة، السحاب، ووادي المحالة. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (2801481) نسمة سنة 1427هــ.
تقع مدينة حائل غرب وادي الأديرع، ويعرف باسم وادي حائل على دائرة عرض 27 درجة و30 دقيقة شمالاً، وخط طول 41 درجة و43 دقيقة شرقاً، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة حائل.
تعد منطقة حائل من مناطق الجذب الحضارية وتشتهر بعدد من الآثار القديمة كالقلاع والقصور القديمة مثل: ياطب، جانين، فيد، جبل حبشي، الثعيلبي، وبها رسوم وكتابات ثمودية ومقابر في ضايف، والسفن. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (267005) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة الباحة في الجزء الجنوبي الغربي من المملكة، على دائرة عرض 20 درجة و15 دقيقة وخط طول 41 درجة و28 دقيقة، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة الباحة.
وهي منطقة جذب سياحي ذات طبيعة هادئة، وجبال شاهقة، وغابات كثيفة، وجو معتدل، تتوافر بها مجموعة من المزروعات لخصوبة أرضها، ويبلغ عدد أسواقها خمساً وعشرين سوقاً خلال ستة أيام في الأسبوع عدا يوم الجمعة. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (85212) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.
تقع مدينة بريدة في وسط شبه الجزيرة العربية، على الحافة اليسرى لمجرى وادي الرملة على دائرة عرض 26 درجة ودقيقتين، وخط طول 43 درجة و58 دقيقة، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة القصيم وتشتهر بالزراعة، وبها مستشفى الملك فهد التخصصي، برج مياه بريدة، مركز الملك خالد الحضاري، مدينة الأمير عبدالله بن عبدالعزيز الرياضية، ومصانع مختلفة تنتج الأسمنت والطوب والإسفنج والأثاث والطوب الفخاري والبلاستيك. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (378422) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة تبوك في شمال غربي المملكة، على دائرة عرض 36 درجة، و65 دقيقة وخط طول 28 درجة، و49 دقيقة، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة تبوك.
تعد تبوك من المدن الزراعية، حيث يوجد بها العديد من المشروعات الزراعية المهمة التي تنتج القمح والفاكهة والدجاج والبيض، اشتهرت بزراعة الأزهار وتصديرها، يوجد بها العديد من الآثار الإسلامية، ومنها مسجد التوبة الذي صلى فيه الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم قبل غزوة تبوك. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (441351) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة جازان في جنوب المملكة على دائرة عرض 16 درجة و53 دقيقة وخط طول 42 درجة و33 دقيقة، وهي مقر منطقة جازان، وتضم المنطقة سد وادي جازان من أكبر سدود المملكة إذ تبلغ طاقته التخزينية 7 ملايين متر مكعب، وهي غنية بالإنتاج الزراعي، كما تضم معالم تاريخية قديمة مثل مدينة عثر وقلعة أبو عريش. وبها ميناء جازان، على ساحل البحر الأحمر، ثالث موانئ المملكة من حيث السعة، والبوابة الرئيسة لواردات الجزء الجنوبي الغربي من المملكة. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (100694) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة الدمام في المنطقة الشرقية على دائرة عرض 26 درجة و30 دقيقة وخط طول 50 درجة و6 دقائق، وهي مقر إمارة المنطقة الشرقية.
تشتهر المنطقة بحقول البترول، وبها مقر شركة أرامكو السعودية، وفيها مدينة الجبيل الصناعية، وميناء الملك عبدالعزيز البحري، المؤسسة العامة لخطوط حديد المملكة العربية السعودية، متنزه الملك فهد، مطار الملك فهد الدولي، كورنيش الدمام، جامعة الملك فهد للبترول والمعادن جامعة الملك فيصل، ومعهد سلاح الطيران. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (744631) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة سكاكا في الطرف الشمالي للنفود الكبير، على دائرة عرض 29 درجة و59 دقيقة وخط طول 40 درجة و12 دقيقة، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة الجوف، وهي مدينة زراعية تعد من أغنى مناطق المملكة بالآثار التاريخية، تمثل عهوداً تاريخية مختلفة مثل حصن زعبل، تل الساعي، أعمدة الرجاجيل، قلعة الطوير، قلعة مارد، ومسجد عمر بن الخطاب «رضي الله عنه». وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (196503) نسمة سنة 1425هــ.

تقع مدينة عرعر في منطقة الحدود الشمالية على دائرة عرض 30 درجة وخط طول 41 وهي مقر إمارة منطقة الحدود الشمالية، وهي مدينة ذات أهمية جغرافية كونها ملتقى طرق مهمة ـ العراق ـ الجوف ـ المدينة المنورة ـ القريات ـ حفر الباطن ـ يمر بها خط أنابيب التابلاين. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (166428) نسمة س

تقع مدينة نجران في الجنوب الغربي للمملكة، على دائرة عرض 17 درجة و37 دقيقة وخط طول 44 درجة و26 دقيقة، وهي مقر إمارة منطقة نجران.
تشتهر بالزراعة، وبها سد وادي نجران، الذي يعد من أكبر السدود المقامة في المملكة بطاقة تخزينية 85 مليون متر مكعب، يكثر فيها النخيل، وأشهر آثارها المنطقة الأخدودية التي ورد ذكرها في القرآن الكريم. وقد بلغ عدد سكانها (246880) نسمة سنة 1425ه